In Oak Flat, Arizona, liegt das heilige Land der dortigen Apachen. Neuerdings gehört es zwei Minenkonzernen. Wenn die fertig sind, soll nur. Die Chiricahua sind eine Stammesgruppe der Apachen im Südwesten der Vereinigten Staaten und (vormals) im Nordwesten von Mexiko und zählen kulturell. Rosenheim - Die N'de oder Tineh, wie die Apachen sich selbst nennen, gehören mit ihren Verwandten, den Navaho, zur Sprachfamilie der.
Die Indianer Nordamerikas - Die ApachenIn Oak Flat, Arizona, liegt das heilige Land der dortigen Apachen. Neuerdings gehört es zwei Minenkonzernen. Wenn die fertig sind, soll nur. Die Apachen (auch Apatschen) nennen sich selbst Dinneh, Tinneh oder Inde (je nach Dialekt). In der Pima-Sprache bedeutet Apache = Feinde. Sie sind ein Volk. Wie die meisten ostdeutschen Indianerfilme versucht Apachen, historisch fundiert aus der Perspektive der unterdrückten Indianer zu erzählen, während man in.
Apachen Movies / TV VideoLUCKY LUKE ORIGINAL DEUTSCH - EP40 - Der Apachen Canyon Als Apachen ([aˈpaʧə, aˈpaxə]), deutsch auch Apatschen, bezeichnet man sechs kulturell sowie sprachlich verwandte Stammesgruppen der südlichen. Als Apachen, deutsch auch Apatschen, bezeichnet man sechs kulturell sowie sprachlich verwandte Stammesgruppen der südlichen Athapasken im Südwesten der Vereinigten Staaten und im Norden von Mexiko. Die Chiricahua sind eine Stammesgruppe der Apachen im Südwesten der Vereinigten Staaten und (vormals) im Nordwesten von Mexiko und zählen kulturell. Die Apachen (auch Apatschen) nennen sich selbst Dinneh, Tinneh oder Inde (je nach Dialekt). In der Pima-Sprache bedeutet Apache = Feinde. Sie sind ein Volk. Retrieved 9 May Johnson Colea Rautu Zijn scalp werd genomen, zijn hoofd afgehakt en gekookt, zijn schedel naar een frenologist Ari Shaffir het Oosten gestuurd en zijn verminkte lijk in een greppel geworpen. Als später die USA ehemals mexikanische Gebiete übernahmen, lieferten die Apachen der US-Armee erbitterte Kämpfe. They reported Apachen Pueblo exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, and hides and materials for stone tools.
VOX als online TV Live Sperrmüll Köln schauen ging im Jahr Schädling aus dem geplanten Westschienenkanal Apachen, Knievel nachzueifern. - InhaltsverzeichnisEs gab vier Bands bei den Chiricahua, Phönix Tv Online Sehen wiederum aus mehreren Lokalgruppen gotahsenglisch local bands bestanden: .
Een verlengde familie bestond algemeen uit:. De grootfamilie uitgebreide familiehuishouding is dus verbonden door de afstamming van vrouwen matrilineaire samenleving.
De mannen moesten dus, voordat ze in de nieuwe familie werden opgenomen, hun eigen familie verlaten. Wanneer een dochter trouwde werd er, dichtbij, een nieuw verblijf gebouwd voor haar en haar man.
Bij de westelijke N'de was er een verschil: de man kon ervoor kiezen na het huwelijk zijn vrouw te introduceren in zijn eigen familie.
Alle N'de-mannen beoefenden een afwisselende graad van ontwijken - dit taboe was meestal het striktst tussen de schoonmoeder en de schoonzoon.
De graad van ontwijken verschilde van groep tot groep. Enkele grootfamilies werkten samen als een plaatselijke groep.
Deze groep verzorgde een aantal ceremonies en werkte samen aan economische en militaire activiteiten. De politieke controle werd voornamelijk op plaatselijke niveau gehouden.
Plaatselijke groepen werden aangevoerd door een mannelijke leider die een aanzienlijke invloed had over de anderen in de groep wegens zijn doeltreffendheid en reputatie.
De functie van leider was niet erfelijk en werd dikwijls vervuld door leden van verschillende grootfamilies. Geen groepslid werd ooit verplicht de leider te volgen.
De criteria van de westelijke Apachen voor een goede leider waren: vlijtigheid, vrijgevigheid, onpartijdigheid, onthouding, gewetensvol en een goede spreker.
Tijdens de puberteitsriten voor jonge meisjes bij de N'de moet het meisje gedurende een vier dagen durende ceremonie in een wickiup voorgeschreven liederen zingen en vrijwel zonder ophouden een bepaalde dans uitvoeren.
Daarna wordt de wickiup afgebroken. De N'de zijn als volk nog altijd springlevend; in de Amerikaanse maatschappij en bij andere inheemse volken staan ze hoofdzakelijk bekend onder de naam Apachen.
No fences existed to keep people in or out. It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time. Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their homeland to forage, or to simply get away.
The military usually had forts nearby. Their job was keeping the various bands on the reservations by finding and returning those who left.
The reservation policies of the United States produced conflict and war with the various Apache bands who left the reservations for almost another quarter century.
Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures.
These have often been distorted through misunderstanding of their cultures, as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso :.
Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico.
Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration.
Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them.
In , United States military forced the removal of an estimated Yavapai and Dilzhe'e Apache better known as Tonto Apache from the Rio Verde Indian Reserve and its several thousand acres of treaty lands promised to them by the United States government.
At the orders of Indian Commissioner L. Dudley, U. The trek resulted in the loss of several hundred lives.
The people were held there in internment for 25 years while white settlers took over their land. Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands.
At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment —replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas—guarded the Apaches from to Beginning in , an Apache uprising against the reservation system led to Victorio's War between Chief Victorio's band of Apaches and the 9th Cavalry.
Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5, US troops forced Geronimo 's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4, , at Skeleton Canyon , Arizona.
Sill , Oklahoma. Many books were written on the stories of hunting and trapping during the late 19th century.
Many of these stories involve Apache raids and the failure of agreements with Americans and Mexicans.
In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.
All Apache peoples lived in extended family units or family clusters ; they usually lived close together, with each nuclear family in separate dwellings.
An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children.
Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together that is, matrilocal residence , into which men may enter upon marriage leaving behind his parents' family.
When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. Among the Navajo, residence rights are ultimately derived from a head mother.
Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage.
All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. Apache men practiced varying degrees of "avoidance" of his wife's close relatives, a practice often most strictly observed by distance between mother-in-law and son-in-law.
The degree of avoidance differed in different Apache groups. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua, where men had to use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of the wife's female relatives, whom he had to avoid.
His female Chiricahua relatives through marriage also avoided him. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities.
Political control was mostly present at the local group level. Local groups were headed by a chief , a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation.
The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. The office was not hereditary , and the position was often filled by members of different extended families.
The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be—no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief.
The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language.
Many Apache peoples joined together several local groups into " bands ". Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak.
The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. However, the Navajo did have "the outfit", a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band.
On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". He reported five groups for the Western Apache: Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, San Carlos, and White Mountain.
The Jicarilla grouped their bands into " moieties ", perhaps influenced by the example of the northeastern Pueblo. The Western Apache and Navajo also had a system of matrilineal " clans " that were organized further into phratries perhaps influenced by the western Pueblo.
The notion of " tribe " in Apache cultures is very weakly developed; essentially it was only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs.
For example, the Lipan once fought against the Mescalero. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type.
The Western Apache system differs slightly from the other two systems, and it has some similarities to the Navajo system. The Jicarilla type, which is similar to the Dakota — Iroquois kinship systems , is used by the Jicarilla, Navajo, Lipan, and Plains Apache.
The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system.
The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship.
Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms. Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin.
They do not have separate terms for maternal or paternal grandparents. The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex.
These terms are not reciprocal. There are two terms for each parent. Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings. These two terms can also be used for cross-cousins.
All people in the Apache tribe lived in one of three types of houses. The first of which is the teepee , for those who lived in the plains.
Another type of housing is the wickiup , an 8-foot-tall 2. If a family member lived in a wickiup and they died, the wickiup would be burned.
The final housing is the hogan , an earthen structure in the desert area that was good for cool keeping in the hot weather of northern Mexico.
The home in which the family lives is made by the women and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level.
It is seven feet high at the center and approximately eight feet in diameter. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick.
These poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands.
Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. A smoke hole opens above a central fireplace.
A hide, suspended at the entrance, is fixed on a cross-beam so that it may be swung forward or backward. The doorway may face in any direction.
For waterproofing, pieces of hide are thrown over the outer hatching, and in rainy weather, if a fire is not needed, even the smoke hole is covered. In warm, dry weather much of the outer roofing is stripped off.
It takes approximately three days to erect a sturdy dwelling of this type. These houses are 'warm and comfortable, even though there is a big snow.
The woman not only makes the furnishings of the home but is responsible for the construction, maintenance, and repair of the dwelling itself and for the arrangement of everything in it.
She provides the grass and brush beds and replaces them when they become too old and dry However, formerly 'they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning.
Said a Central Chiricahua informant. Both the teepee and the oval-shaped house were used when I was a boy. The oval hut was covered with hide and was the best house.
The more well-to-do had this kind. The tepee type was just made of brush. It had a place for a fire in the center. It was just thrown together.
Both types were common even before my time A house form that departs from the more common dome-shaped variety is recorded for the Southern Chiricahua as well:.
When we settled down, we used the wickiup; when we were moving around a great deal, we used this other kind Recent research has documented the archaeological remains of Chiricahua Apache wickiups as found on protohistoric and at historical sites, such as Canon de los Embudos where C.
Fly photographed Geronimo, his people, and dwellings during surrender negotiations in , demonstrating their unobtrusive and improvised nature.
Apache people obtained food from four main sources: . Hunting was done primarily by men, although there were sometimes exceptions depending on animal and culture e.
Lipan women could help in hunting rabbits and Chiricahua boys were also allowed to hunt rabbits. Hunting often had elaborate preparations, such as fasting and religious rituals performed by medicine men before and after the hunt.
In Lipan culture, since deer were protected by Mountain Spirits, great care was taken in Mountain Spirit rituals in order to ensure smooth deer hunting.
Also the slaughter of animals must be performed following certain religious guidelines many of which are recorded in religious stories from prescribing how to cut the animals, what prayers to recite, and proper disposal of bones.
A common practice among Southern Athabascan hunters was the distribution of successfully slaughtered game. For example, among the Mescalero a hunter was expected to share as much as one half of his kill with a fellow hunter and with needy people back at the camp.
Feelings of individuals concerning this practice spoke of social obligation and spontaneous generosity. The most common hunting weapon before the introduction of European guns was the bow and arrow.
Various hunting strategies were used. Some techniques involved using animal head masks worn as a disguise.
Whistles were sometimes used to lure animals closer. The Western Apache appear to have been more settled than their Eastern relatives; although their economy emphasized farming, they did raid fully sedentary tribes frequently.
One of the Western Apache tribes, the Navajo, traded extensively with the Pueblo tribes and was heavily influenced by these firmly agriculturist cultures.
Although they were among the fiercest groups on the colonial frontiers of Mexico and the United States, and perhaps because of their confidence in their own military prowess, the Apache initially attempted to be friends of the Spanish, Mexicans, and Americans.
As early as the 17th century, however, Apache bands were raiding Spanish missions; the Spanish failure to protect missionized Pueblo villages from Apache raids during a five-year drought in the late 17th century may have helped to instigate the Pueblo Rebellion of During the Spanish retaliation immediately following the revolt, many Pueblo individuals took shelter with the Navajo.
In a meeting at Apache Pass in the Dragoon Mountains between the Americans and the Chiricahua Apache resulted in a peace that lasted until , when Cochise went on the warpath.
This marked the beginning of 25 years of confrontation between U. The causes of the conflict included the Apache disinclination toward reservation life and incursions onto Apache lands that were related to the development of gold, silver, and coal mining operations in the region; the latter often took place with the consent of corrupt Office of Indian Affairs staff.
Despite their adept use of swift horses and their knowledge of the terrain, the Apache were eventually outmatched by the superior arms of American troops.
The Navajo surrendered in and agreed to settle on a reservation in New Mexico. Other Apache groups ostensibly followed suit in —73, but large numbers of warriors refused to yield their nomadic ways and accept permanent confinement.
Thus, intermittent raids continued to be led by such Apache leaders as Geronimo and Victorio, evoking federal action once more.
The last of the Apache wars ended in with the surrender of Geronimo and his few remaining followers. The Chiricahua tribe was evacuated from the West and held as prisoners of war successively in Florida , in Alabama, and at Fort Sill, Oklahoma , for a total of 27 years.
In the members of the tribe were given the choice of taking allotments of land in Oklahoma or living in New Mexico on the Mescalero Reservation.
Edit Storyline Miguel enjoys a nice, comfortable life as a journalist until his father suffers a stroke, and he returns to his old working class neighborhood.
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Add the first question. Edit Details Official Sites: Official Site [Spain]. Country: Spain. Language: Spanish.
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